The term, ‘Recognition’ in the higher education context relates to reciprocal understanding between two or more parties to accept the awards and qualifications of each other as equal or substantially equal to those of their own for a variety of academic and professional purposes. The mutual recognition may be accorded to short courses for credit transfer or to the institution as a whole covering the entire range of its offering different types of courses. As mentioned earlier, ultimately, in practice, all such recognition narrows down to the recognition of the Qualifications. When once quality education is ensured and a set of elements that make the quality education as an international education are implemented, recognition of the qualifications across the borders become easier. This can however be hastened and ensured by the National / International Quality Assurance agencies seeking mutual recognition among their counter parts through appropriate modalities like what is being done by the signatories of the Washington Accord by agreeing to certain rigorous conditions for compliance. Mutual Recognition (MR) of the QA agencies is the necessary first step towards the ultimate recognition of the qualifications or any other academic outcomes globally. Therefore, the efforts to develop the appropriate protocol should be undertaken for evolving the mutual recognition among QA agencies .
1. Qualifications Framework
Qualification Framework is as a single integrated system with three coordinated qualifications frameworks: general and further education and skill training, higher education and trades and occupations. This overarching framework contains learning achievements; facilitate access to, and mobility and progression within, education, training and career paths; enhance the quality of education and training; and accelerate the redress of past unfair discrimination in education, training and employment opportunities. There are levels description that are assessed according to diffrent categories .
These categories used in the level descriptors are:
Scope of knowledge
Method and procedure
Ethics and professional practice
Accessing, processing and managing information
Producing and communicating of information
Context and systems
Management of learning
The International Qualifications Framework has a juristic identity possessing the force of law for its enactment by its institutions and regulations. The International Qualifications Framework is comprehensive and affects all its respective providers.
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2. Credit Transfer Frame work
Credits for Practical Skills to Ensure Mobility
A Credit Accumulation and transfer system is necessary for realizing the horizontal and vertical mobility envisaged in the Qualification Framework which is determining the vocational/skills education programmes and courses.
This may turn into dividend if youths become skilled. Vocational Education had been in vogue, but it did not get honorable acceptance by the society in comparison with academic programs. Efforts were made to introduce compulsory and optional subjects . But their acceptance for mobility into higher education was lacking. In order to mainstream skills, Technical council Qualification framework , with varying proportion of vocational skill hours to academic class and lab hours allowing horizontal and vertical mobility.
The Credit Transfer framework allows multiple pathways between Vocational education - skills, Education and job markets. It does not seek to replace the current systems of education nor does it redefine the current education paradigm. It seeks to establish a credit framework that allows vertical and lateral mobility within vocational education system, skills development and the current education systems.
The Credit Transfer framework defines the rules for credit allotment .
The executors of the credit framework shall be the certifying bodies defined at different levels as defined in the IQFW.
The International Qualifications Framework clearly states the credit assessment requirements for skills. The credits for education are indicative and would be subject to adoption by the concerned certifying bodies with or without modifications.
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GLOBAL INTEGRATION THROUGH EDUCATION